• Turkey



    The Turkish state was established in the early 1920s, when it obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire and adopted a democratic and republican governance structure. In 2001, the country suffered a banking crisis that caused a 5.7% contraction of GDP, prompting the Government to undertake various policy reforms. Between 2003 and 2007, annual GDP growth averaged nearly 7%, and GNI per capita increased from US$7,470 in 2006 to US$9,890 in 2010, placing Turkey in the “upper-middle” income country grouping. Between 1990 and 2007, Turkey also generated the largest Human Development Index (HDI) improvement in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Today, it ranks 92nd of 187 countries with a “high” HDI of 0.699. While the country was directly and severely affected by the global financial crisis (GDP fell by 4.8% in 2009), it also showed considerable resilience thanks to the important 2001 reforms and had the strongest recovery in the OECD area (GDP grew by 8.9% in 2010), fuelled by robust export and private consumption growth. Yet Turkey still faces some development challenges.

    • Poverty and inequality
    • High unemployment
    • Skills gap


    • Market concentration and trade deficit
    • Limited access to finance
    • Cumbersome regulatory and business environment


    Turkey continues to move towards membership of the EU, with the legislation and regulation harmonization process being a key anchor in the Turkish reform agenda.

    In addition to becoming fully coherent with the EU, the overall national development objective is to create an information society with stable growth, equality and global competitiveness, as defined in Turkey’s Ninth Development Plan for 2007-2013.

    To achieve this overall goal, the country’s main development priorities are to:

    • Increase competitiveness;
    • Increase employment;
    • Strengthen human development and social solidarity (in education, healthcare, income distribution, social security, culture and social dialogue);
    • Ensure regional development; and
    • Increase quality and effectiveness of public services.

    In terms of competitiveness, the main aims are to:

    • Make macroeconomic stability permanent;
    • Improve the business environment;
    • Reduce the informal economy;
    • Improve the financial system;
    • Improve the energy and transportation infrastructure;
    • Protect the environment and improve the urban infrastructure;
    • Improve R&D and innovativeness;
    • Disseminate information and communication technologies;
    • Improve efficiency of the agriculture structure; and
    • Ensure the shift to high value-added production structure in industry and services.

    More detailed information on Turkey can be found here. 

    Trade and Tariff Graphs

    Graphs of the country’s export markets, its export performance in a key sector and tariffs exporters of a sample product face.
    Trademap sample Trademap sample: The map uses color codes to illustrate the relative size of different markets in the overall exports of the country shown in pink.
    Trademap sample Trademap sample: The vertical axis shows import values by key importing countries, while the horizontal axis shows export values by the country for the same sector. I.e. the country has gained market share in the case of an importing country at the bottom right of chart and lost market share for countries top left. The size of circles is proportional to market size.
    Market access map sample Market access map sample: The world map shows trade values and tariff levels for a key export product by importing countries. Color codes indicate protection levels. Red circles denote trade volumes.

    Trade and Investment Data

    Detailed data on the country’s export performance, key imports and foreign investment, grouped by product and service categories (HS and BOP).

    Trade Information Sources

    A listing of country specific print and online publications on trade related topics. Includes information from both ITC and external sources.

    Trade Contacts

    The most important trade contacts, including importers’ and exporters’ associations, trade support institutions, trade promotion organizations and institutions providing business development assistance.